Linguistically, Tawheed may be defined as the act of making something one; and this can be achieved by negating the fact the there is/are other thing(s) that alike with it and also the confirmation that it is actually one.
Tawheed in islam means the acceptance that Allah(SWT) is one and he is the only one who is worthy of being worshipped.
This means that Tawheed is never achieved by a person until he does two things:
- Negating or dening the right of any other god of worthy of being worshipped.
- Absolute confirmation that only Almighty Allah (SWT) deserves all worship.
With the above two things, a person can now be said to have Tawheed.
Types of Tawheed
According to islamic scholars, there are three types of Tawheed. Which are:
- Tawheed Ar-Rubuubiyyah (The Oneness of Allah in matters of Lordship).
- Tawheed Al-Uluuhiyyah (The Oneness of Allah in matters relating to divinity).
- Tawheed Al-Asma’ was-Sifaat (The Oneness of Allah in His Name’s and Divine Attributes).
This means affirming the Oneness of Allah, the Most Gracious, in creation, dominion and organization of the universe.
هَلْ من خٰلق غير الله يرزقكم من السهآء والأرض لآ إلٰه إلا هوHal min khaaliqin ghairullahi yazuqukum minas Samaa’ wal Ard Laa ilaha illa Hùwa
Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the sky(rain) and the earth? None has the right to be worshipped but He(Q35: V3)
This verse of the Qur’an is affirming to us that Allah alone is the creator and He decreed all things and also arranged them in due proportion. His creation includes all that result from what He has done as well as what His creatures do. Even the deeds of Allah’s creatures are also create by Him.
والله خلقكم وما تعملون
Wallah khalaqakum wa maa ta’maluun
And Allah has created you and what you make(Q37: V96)
If it was said: How can we reconcile declaring the Oneness of Allah, the Almighty, when creation may be confirmed for other than Allah, as proved by the Words of Allah, the Most High
فتبارك الله أحسن الخٰلقين
Fatabaarakallahu Ahsanul khaaliqeen
So, Blessed is Allah, the Best of creators.(Q23: V14)
Prophet Muhammad (SAW) also said pertaining those who make pictures (of living things):
يُقَالُ لَهُمْ: أَحْيُوا مَا خَلَقْتُمْ
It will be said to them: Give life to that which you have created
In essence, all I have been trying to make you understand is that no one can create like Allah does. Which means, Allah is the Creator of all things including what His creatures creates.
Under Tawheed Ar-Rubuubiyyah is also affirming the Oneness of Allah in the matters of dominion. Allah, the Owner of all things says:
تبٰرك الذى بيده الملك وهو على كل شيء قدير
Tabaaraka lladhi biyadihil mulku wa Huwa ‘ala kullum sha’in wader
Blessed is He in Whose Hand is the dominion and He is Able to do all things.(Q67: V1)
He also says:
قل من بيدهى ملكوت كل شيء وهو يجير ولا يجار عليه
Qul man biyadihi malakuutu kullum sha’in wa Huwa yujeeru walaa yujaaru ‘alaihi
Say: In Whose Hand is the sovereignty of everything (i.e. Treasures of everything)? And He protects (all), while against Whom there is no protector (i e. If Allah saves anyone, none can punish or harm him; and if Allah punishes or harms anyone, none can save him).(Q23: V88)
You must also believe in Allah as the one Who has ultimate control over all things.
Should now know that in Tawheed is believing that Allah عز وجل is the creator and controller of everything and He is also the one that has dominion over everything and no one else.
This is the affirmation to the Oneness of Allah, the Most High of matters of worship, meaning that a person may not worship or seek to draw nearer to any one besides Allah.
This is the area of Tawheed that the polytheists went astray, they refuse to know who is worthy of their worship.
If a person believed that Allah is the creator, the Only Owner, the Disposal of all affairs and also believed that He is the only one that has the right to His Names and Attributes, but worshipped another besides Allah, his affirmation of Tawheed Ar-Rubuubiyyah and Tawheed Al-Asma’was-Sifaat would not benefit him.
Let us suppose that a man totally affirms believe in Tawheed Ar-Rubuubiyyah and Tawheed Al-Asma’was-Sifaat, but went to a grave and worshipped its inhabitant or made an oath to always draw close to him, then he would be a Mushrik and a disbelievee and he would dwell in the Hell fire forever. Allah, the Most Blessed says:
إنه من يشرك بالله فقد حرم الله عليه الجنة ومأوىٰه النار وما للظٰلمين من أنصار
Innahu man yushrik billahi fawad harramallahu ‘alaihil jannata wama’waahun Naat, wa maa lizaalimeena min ansari
Verily, whosoever sets up partners(in worship) with Allah, then Allah has forbidden Paradise to him, and the Fire will be his abode. And for the Zalimun (polytheists and wrongdoers) there are no helpers.(Q5: V72)
Tawheed Al-Asma’ was-Sifaat
This is to affirm the Oneness of Allah, the Most High, in the Names by which He has called Himself and the Attributes with which He has describes Himself in His Book, or upon the tongue of His Messenger (SAW).
This means affirming what Allah has ascribed to himself without distorting the meaning, without denial, without trying to explain how and without comparison.
And Allah knows best
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